J. Blaschke and M. Brack,

*Periodic orbit theory of a
circular billard in homogeneous mangetic fields, *

Rhys. Rev. A **56**, (1997), erratum Phys.
Rev. A 57, 3136 (1998).

We present a semiclassical description of the level density of a two-dimensional circular quantum dot in a homogeneous magnetic field. We model the total potential (including electron-electron interaction) of the dot containing many electrons by a circular billiard, i.e., a hard-wall potential. Using the extended approach of the Gutzwiller theory developed by Creagh and Littlejohn, we derive an analytic semiclassical trace formula. For its numerical evaluation we use a generalization of the common Gaussian smoothing technique. In strong fields orbit bifurcations, boundary effects (grazing orbits) and diffractive effects (creeping orbits) come into play, and the comparison with the exact quantum mechanical result shows major deviations. We show that the dominant corrections stem from grazing orbits, the other effects being much less important. We implement the boundary effects, replacing the Maslov index by a quantum-mechanical reflection phase, and obtain a good agreement between the semiclassical and the quantum result for all field strengths. With this description, we are able to explain the main features of the gross-shell structure in terms of just one or two classical periodic orbits.